The Government of Pakistan has been dealing with the challenges related to militancy in the tribal regions of the country since 2001. In 2009, the government launched major military operations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of the country to root out the local pockets of militants. The offensive led to significant damage to physical infrastructure and services while creating a large population of Temporarily Displaced Persons (TDPs) who lost their homes and livelihoods. As a result, approximately 3 million people were displaced in KP and FATA in 2009. The militancy crisis affected not only the TDPs but also those who stayed behind, some of whom being just as poor and vulnerable as the TDPs.
In 2014, the Government of Pakistan led another operation called Zarb-e-Azab against the militants in five agencies of FATA. Since then, the operation in North Waziristan, Kurram, Orakzai, Khyber and South Waziristan Agencies has resulted in a large-scale displacement of the population from FATA reaching up to approximately 336,000 families. Most of the TDP families have settled in district Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan, Lakki Marwat, Kohat and other parts of the KP province. These families have left behind their homes, properties, livestock and assets, and are currently living under difficult conditions either in camps or in host families.
In order to ensure safe, progressive and sustainable return of the displaced population, the FATA Secretariat has taken the lead in developing a comprehensive Sustainable Return and Rehabilitation Strategy (February 2015). The strategy encourages establishing an enabling environment for the voluntary return of the TDP families. Based on a Post-Crisis Needs Assessment, the FATA secretariat identified social protection as one of the nine pillars for the post-crisis rehabilitation of the FATA region.
However, the system did not incorporate a systematic response to disasters or emergency situation such as the militancy crisis. In addition, the provincial and local administration of the KPK and FATA regions has little capacity to manage post-disaster safety net response. As a result, the Government requested the World Bank’s support in strengthening the early recovery of TDP returnees, for all the affected areas of FATA, to provide the returnees with a predictable and regular flow of income over the re-settlement period to cover basic needs before livelihoods are restored as well as child health wellness grant linked with the attendance of health awareness session. In addition, the development of ensuring human development outcomes, is particularly critical towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for Pakistan. The FATA region specifically is lagging behind in terms of children’s health outcomes and immunization rates.
Complementing the current initiatives being implemented by the Government of Pakistan, the World Bank proposes to strengthen the recovery efforts of the government for all recently affected areas of FATA (including North Waziristan, South Waziristan, Khyber, Kurram and Orakzai agencies), through an emergency early recovery project having the following components:
- Early Recovery Grant (ERG): A one-time resettlement grant of Rs. 35,000 to be provided to the families for returning to their homes. The grant covers basic transportation and immediate subsistence needs of the families. It will be directly administered and the upfront payments are made by the government through FATA Secretariat (FDMA is the focal body).
- Livelihood Support Grant (LSG) – These are Unconditianal Cash Tranfsers (UCT) amounting to Rs. 4,000 per month, provided to support immediate safety net recovery support for a period of 4 months. These LSGs shall cover basic and subsistence needs of the families after they return to their homes, to ensure consumption smoothing and provision of support for the affected beneficiaries, till they are able to restore their livelihoods.
- Child Wellness Grant (CWG) – These are Conditianal Cash Tranfsers (CCT) linked to a comprehensive child wellness package, to encourage long-term improvements in children’s health and support overall human development outcomes for the affected region.
- Technical Assistance: Support for the development of Emergency Cash Transfer delivery mechanism for TDPs and non-TDPs belonging to the affected region.
Given the severity of the situation as outlined above, the Government of Pakistan carried out a Post-Crisis Needs Assessment (PCNA) in 2009 to identify the root causes of the militancy crisis and possible areas of intervention. Based on the PCNA, four strategic objectives were defined to address the drivers of the crisis:
- To build the state’s responsiveness and effectiveness in order to restore citizen trust;
- To stimulate employment and livelihood opportunities;
- To ensure the delivery of basic services and;
- To counter radicalize and foster reconciliation.
The overreaching goal of beneficiary mobilization, outreach and communications is to support and facilitate the design and implementation of the project. A multi-layered approach is followed to engage stakeholders effectively. Firstly, the social mobilization process ensures that eligible households are identified, stakeholders consulted and mobilized to avail the grants and CWP and grassroots level interventions are supported to facilitate their access to services. Secondly, the Project supports an effective communication campaign. This is fundamental to engage and educate beneficiaries and also for ensuring long term sustainability in behavioral change. A standardized outreach model for the OSS is put in place and this model includes awareness sessions for beneficiary communications to ultimately help the project to deliver more efficiently by improving the two-way flow of communication and information for both the LSG and CWG components.
Grievance redress counters are opened and staffed by NADRA at the One Stop Shops. NADRA then coordinate with the concerned stakeholders being Payment Service Providers, District Administration and beneficiaries to resolve the grievances related to targeting, payments, quality of services and updating family information, etc. The program includes provisions for a 10 percent contingency to attend the grievances of eligible beneficiaries. Payments are delivered using the same system as used in BISP projects using technology based payment mechanisms with the support of branchless banking, in addition to CNIC and biometric verifications undertaken by NADRA. The NADRA Grievance counters provide a mechanism for social accountability of the Project and facilitate all participating families to interact with the Project, further enabling beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries to understand the procedures to grievance.
The Joint Venture (JV) supports the overall program through mobilizing beneficiaries and enhancing awareness of the program amongst these. It creates a larger understanding of the program amongst audience in FATA, influence beneficiaries to visit the OSS as per schedule and ensure their multiple visits to the OSS as well as inform policy makers about the program.